6285 words Hypersonic flight - Wikipedia

Hypersonic flight is flight through the atmosphere below about 90 kilometres at speeds above Mach 5, a speed where dissociation of air begins to become significant and high heat loads exist.

HistoryEdit

The first manufactured object to achieve hypersonic flight was the two-stage Bumper rocket, consisting of a WAC Corporal second stage set on top of a V-2 first stage. In February 1949, at White Sands, the rocket reached a speed of 8288.12 kilometres/h (5150 mph), or approximately Mach 6.7.[1] The vehicle, however, burned on atmospheric re-entry, and only charred remnants were found. In April 1961, Russian Major Yuri Gagarin became the first human to travel at hypersonic speed, during the world's first piloted orbital flight. Soon after, in May 1961, Alan Shepard became the first American and second person to achieve hypersonic flight when his capsule reentered the atmosphere at a speed above Mach 5 at the end of his suborbital flight over the Atlantic Ocean.[citation needed]

In November 1961, Air Force Major Robert White flew the X-15 research airplane at speeds over Mach 6.[2][3] On 3 October 1967, in California, a X-15 reached Mach 6.7, but by the time the vehicle approached Edwards Air Force Base, intense heating associated with shock waves around the vehicle had partially melted the pylon that attached the ramjet engine to the fuselage.[citation needed]

The reentry problem of a space vehicle was extensively studied.[4] The NASA X-43A flew on scramjet for 10 seconds, and then glided for 10 minutes on its last flight in 2004. The Boeing X-51 Waverider flew on scramjet for 210 seconds in 2013, finally reaching Mach 5.1 on its fourth flight test. The hypersonic regime has since become the subject for further study during the 20-1th century, and strategic competition between China, India, Russia, and the U.S.[citation needed]

PhysicsEdit

The stagnation point of air flowing around a body is a point where its local velocity is zero.[4] At this point the air flows around this location. A shock wave forms, which deflects the air from the stagnation point and insulates the flight body from the atmosphere.[4] This can affect the lifting ability of a flight surface to counteract its drag and subsequent free fall.[5] Ning describes a method for interrelating Reynolds number with Mach number.[6]

In order to maneuver in the atmosphere at faster speeds than supersonic, the forms of propulsion can still be airbreathing systems, but a ramjet no longer suffices for a system to attain Mach 5, as a ramjet slows down the airflow to subsonic.[7] Some systems (waveriders) use a first stage rocket to boost a body into the hypersonic regime. Other systems (boost-glide vehicles) use scramjets after their initial boost, in which the speed of the air passing through the scramjet remains supersonic. Other systems (munitions) use a cannon for their initial boost.[citation needed]

High Temperature EffectEdit

Hypersonic flow is a high energy flow.[8] The ratio of kinetic energy to the internal energy of the gas increases as the square of the Mach number. When this flow enters a boundary layer, there are high viscous effects due to the friction between air and the high-speed object. In this case, the high kinetic energy is converted in part to internal energy and gas energy is proportional to the internal energy. Therefore, hypersonic boundary layers are high temperature regions due to the viscous dissipation of the flow's kinetic energy. Another region of high temperature flow is the shock layer behind the strong bow shock wave. In the case of the shock layer, the flows velocity decreases discontinuously as it passes through the shock wave. This results in a loss of kinetic energy and a gain of internal energy behind the shock wave. Due to high temperatures behind the shock wave, dissociation of molecules in the air becomes thermally active. For example, for air at T > 2000 Kelvin, dissociation of diatomic oxygen into oxygen radicals is active: O2 → 2O[citation needed]

For T > 4000 Kelvin, dissociation of diatomic nitrogen into N radicals is active: N2 → 2N[citation needed]

Consequently, in this temperature range, molecular dissociation followed by recombination of oxygen and nitrogen radicals produces nitric oxide: N2 + O2 → 2NO, which then dissociates and recombines to form ions: N + O → NO+ + e[citation needed]

Low Density FlowEdit

At standard sea-level condition for air, the mean free path of air molecules is about . Low density air is much thinner. At an altitude of 104 kilometres (342000 feet) the mean free path is . Because of this large free mean path aerodynamic concepts, equations, and results based on the assumption of a continuum begin to break down, therefore aerodynamics must be considered from kinetic theory. This regime of aerodynamics is called low-density flow. For a given aerodynamic condition low-density effects depends on the value of a nondimensional parameter called the Knudsen number , defined as where is the typical length scale of the object considered. The value of the Knudsen number based on nose radius, , can be near one.

Hypersonic vehicles frequently fly at very high altitudes and therefore encounter low-density conditions. Hence, the design and analysis of hypersonic vehicles sometimes require consideration of low-density flow. New generations of hypersonic airplanes may spend a considerable portion of their mission at high altitudes, and for these vehicles, low-density effects will become more significant.[8]

Thin Shock LayerEdit

The flow field between the shock wave and the body surface is called the shock layer. As the Mach number M increases, the angle of the resulting shock wave decreases. This Mach angle is described by the equation where a is the speed of the sound wave and v is the flow velocity. Since M=v/a, the equation becomes . Higher Mach numbers position the shock wave closer to the body surface, thus at hypersonic speeds, the shock wave lies extremely close to the body surface, resulting in a thin shock layer. At low Reynolds number, the boundary layer grows quite thick and merges with the shock wave, leading to a fully viscous shock layer.[9]

Viscous InteractionEdit

The compressible flow boundary layer increases proportionately to the square of the Mach number, and inversely to the square root of the Reynolds number.

At hypersonic speeds, this effect becomes much more pronounced, due to the exponential reliance on the Mach number. Since the boundary layer becomes so large, it interacts more viscously with the surrounding flow. The overall effect of this interaction is to create a much higher skin friction than normal, causing greater surface heat flow. Additionally, the surface pressure spikes, which results in a much larger aerodynamic drag coefficient. This effect is extreme at the leading edge and decreases as a function of length along the surface.[8]

Entropy LayerEdit

The entropy layer is a region of large velocity gradients caused by the strong curvature of the shock wave. The entropy layer begins at the nose of the aircraft and extends downstream close to the body surface. Downstream of the nose, the entropy layer interacts with the boundary layer which causes an increase in aerodynamic heating at the body surface. Although the shock wave at the nose at supersonic speeds is also curved, the entropy layer is only observed at hypersonic speeds because the magnitude of the curve is far greater at hypersonic speeds.[8]

Hypersonic weapons developmentEdit

In the last year, China has tested more hypersonic weapons than we have in a decade. We've got to fix that.

— Michael Griffin, US Undersecretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, Flightglobal (2018)[10]

Two main types of hypersonic weapons are hypersonic cruise missiles and hypersonic glide vehicles.[11] Hypersonic weapons, by definition, travel five or more times the speed of sound. Hypersonic cruise missiles, which are powered by scramjet, are restricted below 100000 feet; hypersonic glide vehicles can travel higher. Compared to a ballistic (parabolic) trajectory, a hypersonic vehicle would be capable of large-angle deviations from a parabolic trajectory.[7] According to a July 2019 report by CNBC, Russia and China lead in hypersonic weapon development, trailed by the United States,[12][13][14] and in this case the problem is being addressed in a joint program of the entire Department of Defense.[15] To meet this development need, the Army is participating in a joint program with the Navy and Air Force, to develop a hypersonic glide body.[23] India is also developing such weapons.[24] France and Australia may also be pursuing the technology.[7] Japan is acquiring both scramjet (Hypersonic Cruise Missile), and boost-glide weapons (Hyper Velocity Gliding Projectile).[25]

Waverider hypersonic weapons delivery is an avenue of development. China's XingKong-2 (星空二号, Starry-sky-2), a waverider, had its first flight 3 August 2018.[26][27][28]

In 2016, Russia is believed to have conducted two successful tests of Avangard, a hypersonic glide vehicle. The third known test, in 2017, failed.[29] In 2018, an Avangard was launched at the Dombarovskiy missile base, reaching its target at the Kura shooting range, a distance of 3700 miles (5955 kilometres).[30] Avangard uses new composite materials which are to withstand temperatures of up to 2000 degrees Celsius (3632 degrees Fahrenheit).[31] The Avangard's environment at hypersonic speeds reaches such temperatures.[31] Russia considered its carbon fiber solution to be unreliable,[32] and replaced it with composite materials.[31] Two Avangard hypersonic glide vehicles (HGVs)[33] will first be mounted on SS-19 ICBMs; on 27 December 2019 the weapon was first fielded to the Yasnensky Missile Division, a unit in the Orenburg Oblast.[34] In an earlier report, Franz-Stefan Gady named the unit as the thirteenth Regiment/Dombarovskiy Division (Strategic Missile Force).[33]

These tests have prompted US responses in weapons development[35][36][37][38] per John Hyten's USSTRATCOM statement 05:03, 8 August 2018 (UTC).[39] At least one vendor is developing ceramics to handle the temperatures of hypersonics systems.[40] There are over a dozen US hypersonics projects as of 2018, notes the commander of USSTRATCOM;[39][41][42] from which a future hypersonic cruise missile is sought, perhaps by Q4 FY2021.[43]The Long range precision fires (LRPF) CFT is supporting Space and Missile Defense Command's pursuit of hypersonics.[46] Joint programs in hypersonics are informed by Army work;[47][48] however, at the strategic level, the bulk of the hypersonics work remains at the Joint level.[53] Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF) is an Army priority, and also a DoD joint effort.[48] The Army and Navy's Common Hypersonic Glide Body (C-HGB) had a successful test of a prototype in March 2020.[54][52] A wind tunnel for testing hypersonic vehicles will be built in Texas (2019).[55] The Army's Land-based Hypersonic Missile "is intended to have a range of 1400 miles".[56]:p.6[22] By adding rocket propulsion to a shell or glide body, the joint effort shaved five years off the likely fielding time for hypersonic weapon systems.[57][58] Countermeasures against hypersonics will require sensor data fusion: both radar and infrared sensor tracking data will be required to capture the signature of a hypersonic vehicle in the atmosphere.[63] There are also privately developed hypersonic systems.[64]

DoD tested a Common Hypersonic Glide Body (C-HGB) in 2020.[54][65][66] According to Air Force chief scientist, Dr. Greg Zacharias, the US anticipates having hypersonic weapons by the 2020s,[67] hypersonic drones by the 2030s, and recoverable hypersonic drone aircraft by the 2040s.[68] The focus of DoD development will be on air-breathing boost-glide hypersonics systems.[69] Countering hypersonic weapons during their cruise phase will require radar with longer range, as well as space-based sensors, and systems for tracking and fire control.[69][70][71][72]

Rand Corporation (28 September 2017) estimates there is less than a decade to prevent Hypersonic Missile proliferation.[73] In the same way that anti-ballistic missiles were developed as countermeasures to ballistic missiles, counter-countermeasures to hypersonics systems were not yet in development, as of 2019.[7][74][32][75] But by 2019, 157.4 million dollars was allocated in the FY2020 Pentagon budget for hypersonic defense, out of 2.6 billion dollars for all hypersonic-related research.[56] 207 million dollars of the FY2021 budget was allocated to defensive hypersonics, up from the FY2020 budget allocation of 157 million dollars .[76] Both the US and Russia withdrew from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in February 2019. This will spur arms development, including hypersonic weapons,[77][78] in FY2021 and forward.[79]

Australia and the US have begun joint development of air-launched hypersonic missiles, as announced by a Pentagon statement on 30 November 2020. The development will build on the 54 million dollars Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) under which both nations collaborated on over a 15-year period.[80] Small and large companies will all contribute to the development of these hypersonic missiles.[81]

In 2021 DoD is codifying flight test guidelines, knowledge gained from Conventional prompt strike (CPS) and the other hypersonics programs.[82]

Flown aircraftEdit

Hypersonic aircraftEdit

SpaceplanesEdit

Cancelled aircraftEdit

Hypersonic aircraftEdit

SpaceplanesEdit

Developing and proposed aircraftEdit

Hypersonic aircraftEdit

Cruise missiles and warheadsEdit

  • Advanced Hypersonic Weapon[138]
  • AGM-183A air launched rapid response weapon (ARRW, pronounced "arrow")[139][140][56][141] Telemetry data has been successfully transmitted from ARRW —AGM-183A IMV-2 (Instrumented Measurement Vehicle) to the Point Mugu ground stations, demonstating the ability to accuratly broadcast radio at hypersonic speeds.[142] Hundreds of ARRWs or other Hypersonic weapons are being sought by the Air Force.[143]
  • Expendable Hypersonic Air-Breathing Multi-Mission Demonstrator ("Mayhem")[144] Based on HAWC and HSSW: "solid rocket-boosted, air-breathing, hypersonic conventional cruise missile", a follow-on to AGM-183A. As yet no design work has been done.
  • Hypersonic air-breathing weapon concept (HAWC, pronounced "hawk")[139][56][145][146] It is easier to put a seeker on a sub-sonic air-breathing vehicle.[147]
  • Hypersonic conventional strike weapon (cancelled)
  • Kh-45 (cancelled)
  • Avangard
  • Kinzhal[74]
  • Zircon
  • Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle
  • HGV-202F Hypersonic glide vehicle
  • / Brahmos-II
  • DF-ZF
  • This list was truncated from 14 items.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Winter, Frank (3 August 2000). "V-2 missile". Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. airandspace.si.edu. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  2. ^ White, Robert. "Across the Hypersonic Divide". HistoryNet. HistoryNet LLC. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
  3. ^ "Hypersonic plane passes latest test". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). 22 March 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  4. ^ a b c Alfred J. Eggers, H. Julian Allen, Stanford Neice (10 December 1954), "A comparative analysis of the performance of long-range hypervelocity vehicles", NACA report 1382, pp. 1141–1160
  5. ^ "MIT "Fluids" 1. Effects of Reynolds Number 2. Effects of Mach Number" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  6. ^ "Andrew Ning "Matching Mach and Reynolds Number"" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d Amanda Macias (21 March 2018), "Russia and China are 'aggressively developing' hypersonic weapons — here's what they are and why the US can't defend against them: America's top nuclear commander said the U.S. doesn't have defenses against hypersonic weapons. Russia and China are leading the way in developing hypersonic weapons.", CNBC
  8. ^ a b c d Anderson, John (2016). Introduction to Flight (Eighth ed.) McGraw-Hill Education
  9. ^ "Mach Angle". Glenn Research Center, NASA. 6 April 2018.
  10. ^ Reim2018-12-14T18:43:02+00:00, Garrett. "Counter hypersonic weapon possible by mid-2020s: DoD". Flight Global.
  11. ^ "fas.org" (PDF).
  12. ^ Miller, Jeff Morganteen,Andrea (26 September 2019). "Hypersonic weapons are the center of a new arms race between China, the US and Russia". CNBC.
  13. ^ In, for example Waverider hypersonic weapons delivery, China has flown a Mach 5.5 vehicle for 400 seconds, at 30 kilometres altitude, demonstrating large-angle deviations from a ballistic trajectory, as well as recovery of the payload. See Current test targets, such as Zombie Pathfinder are not hypersonic. Rand Corporation (28 September 2017) Hypersonic Missile Nonproliferation estimates there is less than a decade to prevent Hypersonic Missile proliferation.
  14. ^ Stephen Carlson (14 Nov 2018) DARPA issues contract proposition for hypersonic missile defense
  15. ^ Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (22 August 2018) Army Warhead Is Key To Joint Hypersonics
  16. ^ Paul McLeary (31 January 2020) SecNav Tells Fleet Hypersonic Competition Demands ‘Sputnik Moment;’ Glide Body Test Set Hypersonic Glide Body test for 2020
  17. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (31 May 2019) Joint hypersonic weapon tests to start next year
  18. ^ Colin Clark (24 May 2019) Army Moves Out On Lasers, Hypersonics: Lt. Gen. Thurgood
  19. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 Feb 2020) Army Ramps Up Funding For Laser Shield, Hypersonic Sword In FY2021 HELs funding is up 209 percent; LRHW funding is up 86 percent. RCCTO spending is 1 billion dollars in 2021.
  20. ^ a b Joe Lacdan (16 October 2018) The Army joins the Air Force, Navy in attempt to develop hypersonic weaponry
  21. ^ Kelley M. Sayler, Analyst in Advanced Technology and Global Security. Congressional Research Service R45811 (11 July 2019) Hypersonic Weapons: Background and Issues for Congress Lists names for hypersonics programs
  22. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (30 August 2019) Hypersonics: Army Awards $699M To Build First Missiles For A Combat Unit prototypes—Dynetics: Common hypersonic glide body (C-HGB); Lockheed: Long range hypersonic weapon (LRHW)
  23. ^ [16][17][18][19][20][21][22]
  24. ^ "India successfully test-fires hypersonic missile carrier, fourth country to achieve the feat". ThePrint. 7 September 2020. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  25. ^ Yeo, Mike (13 March 2020). "Japan unveils its hypersonic weapons plans". Defense News.
  26. ^ "China tests waverider hypersonic aircraft Starry Sky-2 inches, 3 August 2018
  27. ^ "China successfully tests first hypersonic aircraft that can carry nuclear warheads – Times of India". The Times of India.
  28. ^ "Youtube clip XingKong-2 hypersonic aircraft (Starry Sky-2)". Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  29. ^ Macias, Amanda (26 December 2018). "The Kremlin says it conducted another successful test of a hypersonic weapon". CNBC. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  30. ^ "Putin crows as he oversees Russian hypersonic weapons test", ABC News, 26 December 2018
  31. ^ a b c "Putin Says 'Invulnerable' New Hypersonic Nuclear Missile Is Ready For Deployment", The Huffington Post, 27 December 2018
  32. ^ a b Amanda Macias (12 October 2018), "Russia hits a snag in developing a hypersonic weapon after Putin said it was already in production", CNBC
  33. ^ a b Franz-Stefan Gady (14 November 2019) Russia: Avangard Hypersonic Warhead to Enter Service in Coming Weeks: "The Russian Strategic Missile Force will receive the first two ICBMs fitted with the Avangard warhead in late November or early December." The Avangard HGV was codenamed Yu-71, under Project 4202. "In late November – early December, two UR-100N UTTKh missiles equipped with the hypersonic glide vehicles from the first regiment of Avangard systems will assume experimental combat duty in the Dombarovsky division of the Strategic Missile Force,"—Tass, 13 November. The "13th regiment will reportedly be the first unit to receive the two retrofitted SS-19 ICBMs. The regiment is part of the Dombarovskiy (Red Banner) missile division". Eventually 4 more SS-19s fitted with Avangard HGVs will join the thirteenth Regiment; a second regiment with six Avangard / SS-19s will be stood up by 2027.
  34. ^ Vladimir Isachenkov (27 December 2019) "New Russian weapon can travel 27 times the speed of sound", Associated Press. —Avangard has been fielded to the Yasnensky Missile Division, a unit in the Orenburg Oblast"The first regiment with the 'Avangard' took up combat duty" На боевое дежурство заступил первый полк с "Авангардами" (in Russian). Interfax. 27 December 2019.
  35. ^ "Lockheed Martin Hypersonic Conventional Strike Weapon (HCSW) Missile for US Air Force". Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  36. ^ Joseph Trevithick (6 September 2018), "DARPA Starts Work On 'Glide Breaker' Hypersonic Weapons Defense Project", The Drive
  37. ^ "Lockheed Martin gets a second hypersonic weapons contract, this time for 480 million dollars , as the US tries to keep pace with Russia and China", 14 August 2018, CNBC
  38. ^ Patrick Tucker (13 January 2020) The US Wants to Intimidate China with Hypersonics, Once It Solves the Physics 2020 review
  39. ^ a b USSTRATCOM, CNBC
  40. ^ Nick Stockton (27 December 2018), "Rotating Detonation Engines Could Propel Hypersonic Flight", Wired
  41. ^ Sydney Freedberg (13 March 2019), "Hypersonics Won't Repeat Mistakes Of F-35 inches, Breaking Defense
  42. ^ Joseph Trevithic (6 August 2019), "Air Force Reveals Tests Of Supposed Record-Setting Scramjet Engine From Northrop Grumman"
  43. ^ Reim2020-04-30T00:42:00+01:00, Garrett. "US Air Force launches study of another hypersonic cruise missile". Flight Global. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  44. ^ Mary Kate Aylward (5 February 2019) Experiments in hyperspeed more on Prompt Global Strike
  45. ^ Megan Eckstein (3 November 2017) Navy Conducts Flight Test to Support Conventional Prompt Strike From Ohio-Class SSGNs first hypersonic glide vehicle test (Flight experiment 1)
  46. ^ [20][44][45]
  47. ^ (15 August 2018) Army Futures Command aims to tap into innovative culture in Austin and beyond
  48. ^ a b Long-range precision fires modernization a joint effort, Army tech leader says
  49. ^ Aaron Gregg (2 August 2019) In conversations with investors, defense firms double down on hypersonic weapons As of August 2019, Lockheed reports 3.5 billion dollars in hypersonics work, while Raytheon reports 1.6 billion dollars ; Boeing declined to give the value of its hypersonics awards.
  50. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (1 March 2018) DoD Boosts Hypersonics 136 % In 2019: DARPA
  51. ^ Jason Cutshaw (19 September 2018) Secretary of the Navy visits AMC, SMDC memorandum of agreement in June to co-develop a hypersonic vehicle
  52. ^ a b Jon Harper (4 March 2020) JUST IN: Pentagon to Spend Billions Mass-Producing Hypersonic Weapons "Aero shells that provide thermal protection for the high-speed platforms will be a key component of the systems"
  53. ^ [49][50][51][52][22]
  54. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 Mar 2020) Hypersonics: Army, Navy Test Common Glide Body "The U.S. Navy and U.S. Army jointly executed the launch of a common hypersonic glide body (C-HGB), which flew at hypersonic speed to a designated impact point"
  55. ^ Haley Britzky (14 August 2019) The Army is getting a new 130 million dollars hypersonics playground in Texas
  56. ^ a b c d Kelley M. Sayler (11 July 2019), "Hypersonic Weapons: Background and Issues for Congress", Congressional Research Service
  57. ^ Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (11 February 2019) Army aligning modernization programs with other services
  58. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 September 2018) Aiming The Army’s Thousand-Mile Missiles Multi-domain Ft Sill
  59. ^ John L. Dolan, Richard K. Gallagher & David L. Mann (23 April 2019) Hypersonic Weapons – A Threat to National Security Hypersonic and Ballistic Tracking Space Sensor (HBTSS)
  60. ^ Theresa Hitchens (24 February 2020) 2021 Budget Will Finally Fully Fund Next-Gen OPIR, Says Roper Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) replacement: three satellites in Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) and two satellites in a polar orbit
  61. ^ Jen Judson (20 August 2019) US Missile Defense Agency boss reveals his goals, challenges on the job Increase the discrimination of the radars and other sensors. Use Large aperture sensors. Use Space-based missile sensors. An SM-3 Block IIA missile test against ICBM is scheduled for 2020. Plan out the detection, control and engagement; the sensors, the command-and-control, the fire control, and the weapons (the kill vehicles).
  62. ^ Theresa Hitchens (9 October 2020) SDA Missile Tracking A ‘Strategic Win’ For L3Harris, SpaceX
  63. ^ [59][60][61][62]
  64. ^ Colin Clark (19 June 2019), "Raytheon, Northrop Will 'Soon' Fly Hypersonic Cruise Missile", Breaking Defense, Paris Air Show, new additive-process materials to build the combustor of a scramjet; potential integration among members of an intercommunicating swarm of hypersonics systems.
  65. ^ "Pentagon to TestFly New Hypersonic Weapon This Year". www.nationaldefensemagazine.org.
  66. ^ Bryan Clark (21 April 2020) DoD Is Running the Wrong Way in the Hypersonics Race 500 pound payload; maneuverability at Mach 5 is an issue; possible red herring for funding
  67. ^ Sean Kimmons (31 May 2019), "Joint hypersonic weapon tests to start next year", Army News Service
  68. ^ Osborn, Kris (12 August 2017). "Get Ready, Russia and China: America's Next Fighter Jet Will Dominate the Skies". The National Interest. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  69. ^ a b David Vergun (14 December 2018), "DOD scaling up effort to develop hypersonics", U.S. Army
  70. ^ Loren Thompson (30 July 2019) "Defense Against Hypersonic Attack Is Becoming The Biggest Military Challenge Of The Trump Era"
  71. ^ John L. Dolan, Richard K. Gallagher & David L. Mann (23 April 2019) "Hypersonic Weapons – A Threat to National Security" Hypersonic and Ballistic Tracking Space Sensor (HBTSS)
  72. ^ Paul McLeary (18 December 2019), "MDA Kickstarts New Way To Kill Hypersonic Missiles" MDA's Hypersonic Defense Weapon System – 4 Interceptors
  73. ^ "Hypersonic Missile Nonproliferation", Rand Corporation, 28 September 2017, via YouTube
  74. ^ a b "Putin unveils new nuclear missile, says 'listen to us now'". nbcnews.com. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  75. ^ Sydney Freedberg (1 February 2019) "Pentagon Studies Post-INF Weapons, Shooting Down Hypersonics", Breaking Defense
  76. ^ Theresa Hitchens (22 Mar 2021) DoD Needs To Sharpen Hypersonics Oversight: GAO
  77. ^ Linda Givetash (2 February 2019), "Putin says Russia also suspending key nuclear arms treaty after U.S. move to withdraw", NBC News, Reuters
  78. ^ Rebecca Kheel and Morgan Chalfant (31 July 2019) "Landmark US-Russia arms control treaty poised for final blow", The Hill
  79. ^ Sebastien Roblin (30 April 2020) The Pentagon Plans to Deploy An Arsenal Of Hypersonic Weapons In The 2020s Army LRHW, Navy C-HGB, Air Force HSW-ab
  80. ^ Rej, Abhijnan (2 December 2020). "Australia to Acquire Hypersonic Weapons Capability in Collaboration with US". The Diplomat. Retrieved 4 March 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  81. ^ https://www.afr.com/politics/federal/australia-to-help-develop-hypersonic-missiles-20201130-p56j75
  82. ^ Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (24 Mar 2021) OSD Writes Hypersonic Flight Test Guidelines
  83. ^ "THE Aerojet X-8 inches. www.456fis.org.
  84. ^ Gibbs, Yvonne (13 August 2015). "NASA Dryden Fact Sheets – X-15 Hypersonic Research Program". NASA.
  85. ^ "Lockheed X-17 inches. www.designation-systems.net.
  86. ^ "X-51A Waverider". U.S. Air Force.
  87. ^ China unveils Dongfeng-17 conventional missiles in military parade, 1 October 2019, via YouTube. See minute 0:05 to 0:49 for 16 Hypersonic Glide Vehicles (white-tipped contrast atop their DF-17 fuselages mounted on booster rockets).
  88. ^ Ankit Panda (7 October 2019) "Hypersonic Hype: Just How Big of a Deal Is China's DF-17 Missile?", The Diplomat. A conventional-weapons-only boost-glide HGV mounted on endo-atmospheric fuselage (DF-17).
  89. ^ "Avangard (Hypersonic Glide Vehicle) – Missile Defense Advocacy Alliance". Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  90. ^ Peri, Dinakar (12 June 2019). "DRDO conducts maiden test of hypersonic technology demonstrator". The Hindu.
  91. ^ April 2015, Elizabeth Howell 21. "Buran: The Soviet Space Shuttle". Space.com.
  92. ^ "RLV-TD – ISRO". www.isro.gov.in.
  93. ^ Ba (Nyse) (1 January 2020). "Autonomous Systems – X-37B". Boeing. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  94. ^ "Project 863-706 Shenlong ("Divine Dragon")". www.globalsecurity.org.
  95. ^ "IXV – Intermediate Experimental Vehicle – Spacecraft & Satellites". Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  96. ^ "BOR-4 inches. space.skyrocket.de.
  97. ^ "The Martin Marietta X-23 Prime". www.456fis.org.
  98. ^ "X-24 inches. www.astronautix.com.
  99. ^ "Asset". www.astronautix.com.
  100. ^ "JAXA | Hypersonic Flight Experiment "HYFLEX"". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.
  101. ^ https://steemit.com/space/@anzha/meet-the-jiageng-1-china-s-demonstrator-for-its-equivalent-of-the-darpa-xs-1. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  102. ^ Drye, Paul (10 July 2012). "Sänger-Bredt Silbervogel: The Nazi Space Plane".
  103. ^ "Keldysh Bomber". www.astronautix.com.
  104. ^ "Tu-2000 inches. www.astronautix.com.
  105. ^ Wade, Mark. "Tsien Spaceplane 1949 inches. astronautix.com.
  106. ^ "HOPE". www.astronautix.com.
  107. ^ Conner, Monroe (30 March 2016). "Lockheed Martin X-33 inches. NASA.
  108. ^ "Hermes". www.astronautix.com.
  109. ^ "Jumping into the New Space Race, Orbital Sciences Unveils Mini-Shuttle Spaceplane Design". Popular Science.
  110. ^ "Mustard". www.astronautix.com.
  111. ^ "Kliper". www.astronautix.com.
  112. ^ "Valier "Raketenschiff" (1929): Classic Rocketship Series #6 inches. The Virtual Museum of Flying Wonders. Fantastic Plastic Models.
  113. ^ "Rockwell C-1057 "Breadbox" Space Shuttle (1972)". The Virtual Museum of Flying Wonders. Fantastic Plastic Models.
  114. ^ Cui, et. al. (February 2019) Hypersonic I-shaped aerodynamic configurations Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy 61:024722 Wind tunnel proposal
  115. ^ "ISRO's AVATAR – making India proud again". www.spsmai.com.
  116. ^ "ISRO's Scramjet Engine Technology Demonstrator Successfully Flight Tested – ISRO". www.isro.gov.in.
  117. ^ January 2020, Mike Wall 23. "DARPA scraps XS-1 military space plane project after Boeing drops out". Space.com.
  118. ^ "Dream Chaser® – America's Spaceplane™ | Sierra Nevada Corporation". www.sncorp.com.
  119. ^ "NASA X-43 inches. Aerospace Technology.
  120. ^ Conner, Monroe (4 April 2016). "X-43A (Hyper-X)". NASA.
  121. ^ "HyperSoar – Military Aircraft". fas.org.
  122. ^ "HyperMach unveils SonicStar supersonic business jet concept". newatlas.com.
  123. ^ "Falcon HTV-2 inches. www.darpa.mil.
  124. ^ "Boeing Unveils Hypersonic Airliner Concept". Aviation Week. 26 June 2018.
  125. ^ Pappalardo, Joe (26 June 2018). "How Boeing's Hypersonic Passenger Plane Concept Works". Popular Mechanics.
  126. ^ "SR-72 Hypersonic Demonstrator Aircraft". Airforce Technology.
  127. ^ Dan Goure (20 June 2019) "Hypersonic Weapons Are Almost Here (And They Will Change War Forever)" Lockheed-Martin vs Raytheon-Northrup
  128. ^ Steve Trimble (29 July 2019), "Raytheon Tactical Boost Glide Baseline Review Completed", Aviation Week
  129. ^ Dr. Peter Erbland, Lt. Col. Joshua Stults () "Tactical Boost Glide"
  130. ^ "Saenger II". www.astronautix.com.
  131. ^ "Hytex". www.astronautix.com.
  132. ^ "Horus". www.astronautix.com.
  133. ^ February 2013, Markus Hammonds 20. "Skylon Space Plane: The Spacecraft of Tomorrow". Space.com.
  134. ^ D. Preller; P. M. Smart. "Abstract: SPARTAN: Scramjet Powered Accelerator for Reusable Technology AdvaNcement" (PDF). 2014 ReinventingSpace Conference (Rispace 2014).
  135. ^ "High-Speed Experimental Fly Vehicles – INTernational". European Space Agency.
  136. ^ Ros, Miquel. "Space tech meets aviation: The hypersonic revolution". CNN.
  137. ^ "This hypersonic airliner would take you from Los Angeles to Tokyo in under two hours". NBC News. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  138. ^ "Advanced Hypersonic Weapon (AHW)". Army Technology.
  139. ^ a b "Air Force tests hypersonic weapon aboard B-52 for first time". UPI.
  140. ^ Chris Martin (17 December 2019) "Lockheed awards $81.5M contract for hypersonic missile motor", Defense News, HCSW $81.5M, ARRW
  141. ^ Theresa Hitchens (27 February 2020) Lockheed Martin, Air Force Press Ahead On Air-Launched Hypersonic Missile =HSW-ab; ARRW funding is augmented;
  142. ^ Xiao, Bing (10 August 2020). "Air Force's Hypersonic Weapon Hits 'Major Milestone' in New Test". Military.com. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  143. ^ McLeary, Paul. "Hypersonics: DoD Wants 'Hundreds of Weapons' ASAP". Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  144. ^ "'Mayhem' Will Be Larger, Multi-Role Air-Breathing Hypersonic System for USAF". 19 August 2020. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  145. ^ Joseph Trevithick (18 June 2019), "Northrop And Raytheon Have Been Secretly Working On Scramjet Powered Hypersonic Missile", The Drive
  146. ^ Kris Osborn (1 October 2019), "Air Force arms B1-B bomber with hypersonic weapons", Fox News
  147. ^ Jr, Sydney J. Freedberg. "Hypersonic Missiles: Plethora Of Boost-Glide & Cruise".

External linksEdit

THE END