Häagen-Dazs (US: //, UK: //) is an American ice cream brand, established by Reuben and Rose Mattus in Brooklyn Heights, New York, in 1961. Starting with only three flavors: vanilla, chocolate, and coffee, the company opened its first retail store in Brooklyn, New York, on November 15, 1976. The business now has franchises throughout the United States and many other countries around the world including Japan, the United Kingdom, Australia, India, China, Lebanon, New Zealand, Peru, and Brazil.
|Founded||Brooklyn, New York (1961 )|
|Founder||Reuben and Rose Mattus|
|Headquarters||Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States|
|Parent||Froneri (product owner, United States), General Mills (brand owner, Internationally)|
Reuben Mattus invented the phrase "Häagen-Dazs" in a quest for a brand name that he claimed was Danish-sounding; it bears no resemblance to Danish.[note 1] According to Mattus, it was a tribute to Denmark's exemplary treatment of its Jews during the Second World War, and included an outline map of Denmark on early labels. Mattus felt that Denmark was also known for its dairy products and had a positive image in the United States. His daughter Doris Hurley reported in the 1999 PBS documentary An Ice Cream Show that her father sat at the kitchen table for hours saying nonsensical words until he came up with a combination he liked. The reason he chose this method was so that the name would be unique and original.
Conflict with Frusen GlädjeEdit
In 1980, Häagen-Dazs unsuccessfully sued Frusen Glädje, an American ice cream maker founded that year, for using foreign branding strategies. The phrase frusen glädje—without the acute accent—is Swedish for "frozen delight". In 1985, Frusen Glädje was sold to Kraft General Foods. A Kraft spokeswoman stated that Kraft sold its Frusen Glädje license to the Unilever corporation in 1993, but a spokesman for Unilever claimed that Frusen Glädje was not part of the deal. The brand has since disappeared.
Häagen-Dazs ice cream comes in several traditional flavors as well as several esoteric flavors that are specific to the brand, such as Vanilla Swiss Almond and Bananas Foster. It is marketed as a "super-premium" brand: it is quite dense (very little air is mixed in during manufacture), uses no emulsifiers or stabilizers other than egg yolks, and has a high butterfat content. It is sold both in grocery stores and in dedicated retail outlets serving ice cream cones, sundaes, and so on.
Since 1992, most of the world's Häagen-Dazs products have been manufactured at a plant in Tilloy-lès-Mofflaines, France that is now controlled by General Mills. In the United States and Canada, Häagen-Dazs is licensed to and produced by Nestle subsidiary Dreyer's. Häagen-Dazs entered the Japanese market in 1984 by forming a joint venture with Suntory and Takanashi Milk, which has produced their products there ever since.
To offset increasing costs of their ingredients and the delivery of the product, Häagen-Dazs announced that, in January 2009, it would be reducing the size of their ice cream cartons in the US from 16 US fl oz (470 ml) to 14 US fl oz (410 ml). In March 2009, they announced that they would be shrinking the 32 US fl oz (950 ml) container to 28 US fl oz (830 ml).
Häagen-Dazs's founder Reuben Mattus was born in Poland in 1912 to Jewish parents. His father died during the First World War, and his widowed mother migrated to New York City with her two children in 1921. They joined an uncle who was in the Italian lemon-ice business in Brooklyn. By the late 1920s, the family began making ice pops, and by 1929, chocolate-covered ice cream bars and sandwiches under the name Senator Frozen Products on Southern Boulevard in the South Bronx, delivering them with a horse-drawn wagon to neighborhood stores in the Bronx.
The Senator Frozen Products company was profitable, but by the 1950s the large mass-producers of ice cream started a price warleading to his decision to make a heavy kind of high-end ice cream. In 1959, he decided to form a new ice cream company with what he thought to be a Danish-sounding name, Häagen-Dazs, a move known in the marketing industry as foreign branding. Rose Mattus would dress up in fancy clothing to distribute free samples, giving the ice cream an air of sophistication and class. 
The Pillsbury Company bought Häagen-Dazs in 1983. In 1999, Pillsbury and Nestle merged their U.S. and Canadian ice cream operations into a joint venture called Ice Cream Partners. General Mills, in turn, bought Pillsbury in 2001 and seceded its interest in the joint venture. That same year, Nestle exercised its contractual right to buy out General Mills' interest in Ice Cream Partners, which included the right to a 99-year license for the Häagen-Dazs brand, until 2100. Since then, pursuant to that license, the Dreyer's subsidiary of Nestle has produced and marketed Häagen-Dazs products in the United States and Canada.
- The term does not exist in the Danish or any other known language; and Danish has neither an umlaut ä (the ligature æ is the corresponding counterpart) nor the zs digraph; the umlaut is typical of German while the diagraph is typical of Polish and Hungarian. In Norwegian "hagen" (cognate with Danish "haven") means "the garden" while "dass" (zs and ss are pronounced identically in European languages) is a coarse slang term for toilet in all the Scandinavian languages, a loan word derived from the German definite article das, originally from the German expression das Häuschen (the small house, i.e. the toilet), by euphemistic omission of the main word.
- Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
- See sign outside that first store, shown at File:Häagen-Dazs' first shop.jpg.
- "History". Häagen-Dazs®. Archived from the original on October 17, 2012. Retrieved September 25, 2011.
- "Products". Häagen-Dazs. Archived from the original on June 4, 2010. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- "Häagen-Dazs Comes From Where?!". HuffPost. 2015-05-13. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- Dennis Hevesi (December 1, 2006). "Rose Mattus, 90, Co-Creator of Häagen-Dazs Ice Cream, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- "hage(n)". Det Norske Akademis ordbok.
- "dass". Det Norske Akademis ordbok.
- Joan Nathan (August 2, 2012). "Ice Cream's Jewish Innovators". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- "Haagen-Dazs whips up Japan gains with tailor-blended ice cream". The Daily Yomiuri. Tokyo. August 16, 2004. p. 1.
- "An Ice Cream Show (1999)". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- "Trade Dress Protection for Advertising Campaigns". Hall Dickler Kent Goldstein & Wood, LLP. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- 'Whatever Happened To...Frusen Gladje? The Christian Science Monitor September 28, 2000
- "Vingt ans pour l'usine Häagen Dazs Arras, c'est le bel âge… de glace". www.lavoixdunord.fr.
- Sharkov, Damien (April 13, 2016). "Haagen-Dazs Brands Its Ice Cream As 'Made In France'". Newsweek. New York: Newsweek LLC. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
- York, Emily Bryson (March 9, 2009). "Ben and Jerry's Calls Out Haagen-Dazs on Shrinkage". Advertising Age. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- "Our new Häagen-Dazs cartons". Häagen-Dazs. Archived from the original on February 25, 2010. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- Bobbie Stein (August 17, 1981). "Reuben Mattus Scooped the Competition with His Pricey and Nonsense-Named Haagen-Dazs". People Magazine. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- "Häagen-Dazs Comes From Where?!". HuffPost. 2015-05-13. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- Barboza, David (July 18, 2000). "General Mills-Pillsbury Deal Includes Culture and History". The New York Times. Reuters. p. C.2. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- "News Summary". The New York Times. October 24, 2001. p. C.1. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- "Nestle takes over Dreyer's". San Francisco Business Times. June 25, 2003. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- "Haagen-Dazs scooped up". CNNMoney.com. December 26, 2001. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
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