11257 words Ludwig van Beethoven - Wikipedia

Ludwig van Beethoven[n 1] (/ˈlʊdvɪɡ væn ˈbt(h)vən/ (About this soundlisten); German: [ˈluːtvɪç fan ˈbeːthoːfn̩] (About this soundlisten); baptised 17 December 1770 – 26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist; his music is amongst the most performed of the classical repertoire and he is one of the most admired composers in the history of Western music. His works span the transition between the classical and romantic eras in classical music. His career has conventionally been divided into early, middle, and late periods. The "early" period in which he forged his craft, is typically seen to last until 1802. His "middle" period, (sometimes characterised as "heroic") shows an individual development from the "classical" styles of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, covers the years 1802 to 1812, during which he increasingly suffered from deafness. In the "late" period from 1812 to his death in 1827, he extended his innovations in musical form and expression.

Ludwig van Beethoven
Portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820
Portrait of Beethoven by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820
Baptised17 December 1770
Died(1827-03-26)26 March 1827 (aged 56)
List of compositions
Signature written in ink in a flowing script

Beethoven was born in Bonn. His musical talent was obvious at an early age, and he was initially harshly and intensively taught by his father Johann van Beethoven. He was later taught by the composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe, under whose tuition he published his first work, a set of keyboard variations, in 1783. He found relief from a dysfunctional home life with the family of Helene von Breuning, whose children he loved, befriended and taught piano. At age 21, he moved to Vienna which subsequently became his base, and studied composition with Haydn. Beethoven then gained a reputation as a virtuoso pianist, and he was soon courted by Karl Alois, Prince Lichnowsky for compositions, which resulted in his three Opus 1 piano trios (the earliest works to which he accorded an opus number) in 1795.

His first major orchestral work, the First Symphony, appeared in 1800, and his first set of string quartets was published in 1801. During this period, his hearing began to deteriorate, but he continued to conduct, premiering his Third and Fifth Symphonies in 1804 and 1808, respectively. His Violin Concerto appeared in 1806. His last piano concerto (No. 5, Op. 73, known as the 'Emperor'), dedicated to his great patron Archduke Rudolf of Austria, was premiered in 1810, but not with the composer as soloist. He was almost completely deaf by 1814, and he then gave up performing and appearing in public. His problems with health and his unfulfilled personal life are exemplified by his "Heiligenstadt Testament" (1802) and his unsent letter to his "Immortal Beloved" (1812).

In the years from 1810, increasingly less socially involved, Beethoven composed many of his most admired works including his later symphonies and his mature chamber music and piano sonatas. His only opera Fidelio, which had been first performed in 1805, was revised to its final version in 1814. He composed his Missa Solemnis in the years 1819–1823, and his final, Ninth, Symphony, one of the first examples of a choral symphony, in 1822–1824. Written in his last years, his late string quartets of 1825–26 are amongst his final achievements. After some months of bedridden illness he died in 1827. Beethoven's works in all genres remain mainstays of the classical music repertoire.

Life and career

Family and early life

Beethoven's birthplace at Bonngasse 20, Bonn, now the Beethoven House museum

Beethoven was the grandson of Ludwig van Beethoven (1712–1773), a musician from the town of Mechelen in the Austrian Duchy of Brabant (in what is now the Flemish region of Belgium) who had moved to Bonn at the age of 21.[2][3] Ludwig was employed as a bass singer at the court of Clemens August, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, eventually rising to become, in 1761, Kapellmeister (music director) and hence a pre-eminent musician in Bonn. The portrait he commissioned of himself towards the end of his life remained displayed in his grandson's rooms as a talisman of his musical heritage.[4] Ludwig had one son, Johann (1740–1792), who worked as a tenor in the same musical establishment and gave keyboard and violin lessons to supplement his income.[2] Johann married Maria Magdalena Keverich in 1767; she was the daughter of Heinrich Keverich (1701–1751), who had been the head chef at the court of the Archbishopric of Trier.[5] Beethoven was born of this marriage in Bonn. There is no authentic record of the date of his birth; however, the registry of his baptism, in the Catholic Parish of St. Remigius on 17 December 1770, survives, and the custom in the region at the time was to carry out baptism within 24 hours of birth. There is a consensus, (with which Beethoven himself agreed) that his birth date was 16 December, but no documentary proof of this.[6]

Of the seven children born to Johann van Beethoven, only Ludwig, the second-born, and two younger brothers survived infancy. Kaspar Anton Karl was born on 8 April 1774, and Nikolaus Johann, the youngest, was born on 2 October 1776.[7]

Beethoven's first music teacher was his father. He later had other local teachers: the court organist Gilles van den Eeden (d. 1782), Tobias Friedrich Pfeiffer (a family friend, who provided keyboard tuition), and Franz Rovantini (a relative, who instructed him in playing the violin and viola).[2] From the outset his tuition regime, which began in his fifth year, was harsh and intensive, often reducing him to tears; with the involvement of the insomniac Pfeiffer there were irregular late-night sessions with the young Beethoven being dragged from his bed to the keyboard.[8] His musical talent was obvious at a young age. Johann, aware of Leopold Mozart's successes in this area (with his son Wolfgang and daughter Nannerl), attempted to promote his son as a child prodigy, claiming that Beethoven was six (he was seven) on the posters for his first public performance in March 1778.[9]

1780–1792: Bonn

Christian Gottlob Neefe. Engraving after Johann Georg Rosenberg, c. 1798

In 1780 or 1781, Beethoven began his studies with his most important teacher in Bonn, Christian Gottlob Neefe.[10] Neefe taught him composition; in March 1783 appeared Beethoven's first published work, a set of keyboard variations (WoO 63).[7][n 2] Beethoven soon began working with Neefe as assistant organist, at first unpaid (1782), and then as a paid employee (1784) of the court chapel.[12] His first three piano sonatas, WoO 47, sometimes known as "Kurfürst" ("Elector") for their dedication to the Elector Maximilian Friedrich (1708–1784), were published in 1783.[13] In the same year the first printed reference to Beethoven appeared in the Magazin der Musik – "Louis van Beethoven [sic] ... a boy of 11 years and most promising talent. He plays the piano very skilfully and with power, reads at sight very well ... the chief piece he plays is Das wohltempierte Klavier of Sebastian Bach, which Herr Neefe puts into his hands ..."[2] Maximilian Friedrich's successor as the Elector of Bonn was Maximilian Franz. He gave some support to Beethoven, appointing him Court Organist and paying towards his visit to Vienna of 1792. [5][14]

He was introduced in these years to several people who became important in his life. He often visited the cultivated von Breuning family, where he taught piano to some of the children, and where the widowed Frau von Breuning offered him a motherly friendship. Here he also met Franz Wegeler, a young medical student, who became a lifelong friend (and was to marry one of the von Breuning daughters). The von Breuning family environment offered an alternative to his home life, which was increasingly dominated by his father's decline. Another frequenter of the von Breunings was Count Ferdinand von Waldstein, who became a friend and financial supporter during Beethoven's Bonn period.[15][16] .[17] Waldstein was to commission in 1791 Beethoven's first work for the stage, the ballet Musik zu einem Ritterballett (WoO 1).[18]

Count Waldstein: portrait by Antonín Machek, c. 1800

In the period 1785–90 there is virtually no record of Beethoven's activity as a composer. This may be attributed to the lukewarm response his initial publications had attracted, and also to ongoing problems in the Beethoven family.[19] His mother died in 1787, shortly after Beethoven’s first visit to Vienna, where he stayed for about two weeks and almost certainly met with Mozart.[15]. In 1789 Beethoven's father was forcibly retired from the service of the Court (as a consequence of his alcoholism) and it was ordered that half of his father's pension be paid directly to him for support of the family.[20] He contributed further to the family's income by teaching (to which Wegeler said he had "an extraordinary aversion"[21]) and by playing viola in the court orchestra. This familiarized him with a variety of operas, including works by Mozart, Gluck and Paisiello.[22] Here he also befriended Anton Reicha, a composer, flautist and violinist of about his own age who was a nephew of the court orchestra's conductor, Josef Reicha.[23]

From 1790 to 1792, Beethoven composed a number of works (none were published at the time) showing a growing range and maturity. Musicologists have identified a theme similar to those of his Third Symphony in a set of variations written in 1791.[24] It was perhaps on Neefe's recommendation that Beethoven received his first commissions; the Literary Society in Bonn commissioned a cantata to mark the occasion of the death in 1790 of Joseph II (WoO 87), and a further cantata, to celebrate the subsequent accession of Leopold II as Holy Roman Emperor (WoO 88), may have been commissioned by the Elector.[25]. These two Emperor Cantatas were never performed at the time and they remained lost until the 1880s, when they were described by the composer Johannes Brahms as "Beethoven through and through" and as such prophetic of the style which would mark his music as distinct from the classical tradition.[26]

Beethoven was probably first introduced to Joseph Haydn in late 1790, when the latter was travelling to London and stopped in Bonn around Christmas time.[27] A year and a half later, they met in Bonn on Haydn's return trip from London to Vienna in July 1792, when Beethoven played in the orchestra at the Redoute in Godesberg. It is likely that arrangements were made at that time for Beethoven to study with the older master.[28] Waldstein wrote to him before his departure: “You are going to Vienna in fulfilment of your long-frustrated wishes […] With the help of assiduous labour you shall receive Mozart’s spirit from Haydn’s hands.”[15]

1792–1802: Vienna - the early years

Portrait of Beethoven as a young man, c. 1800, by Carl Traugott Riedel (1769–1832)

Beethoven left Bonn for Vienna in November 1792, amid rumours of war spilling out of France; he learned shortly after his arrival that his father had died.[29][30] Over the next few years, Beethoven responded to the widespread feeling that he was a successor to the recently deceased Mozart by studying that master's work and writing works with a distinctly Mozartean flavour.[31]

He did not immediately set out to establish himself as a composer, but rather devoted himself to study and performance. Working under Haydn's direction,[32] he sought to master counterpoint. He also studied violin under Ignaz Schuppanzigh.[33] Early in this period, he also began receiving occasional instruction from Antonio Salieri, primarily in Italian vocal composition style; this relationship persisted until at least 1802, and possibly as late as 1809.[34]

With Haydn's departure for England in 1794, Beethoven was expected by the Elector to return home to Bonn. He chose instead to remain in Vienna, continuing his instruction in counterpoint with Johann Albrechtsberger and other teachers. In any case, by this time it must have seemed clear to his employer that Bonn would fall to the French, as it did in October 1794, effectively leaving Beethoven without a stipend or the necessity to return.[35] However, a number of Viennese noblemen had already recognised his ability and offered him financial support, among them Prince Joseph Franz Lobkowitz, Prince Karl Lichnowsky, and Baron Gottfried van Swieten.[36]

Assisted by his connections with Haydn and Waldstein, Beethoven began to develop a reputation as a performer and improviser in the salons of the Viennese nobility.[37] His friend Nikolaus Simrock began publishing his compositions, starting with a set of keyboard variations on a theme of Dittersdorf (WoO 66).[38] By 1793, he had established a reputation in Vienna as a piano virtuoso, but he apparently withheld works from publication so that their eventual appearance would have greater impact.[36]

Prince Lobkowitz: portrait by August Friedrich Oelenhainz

His first public performance in Vienna was in March 1795, where he first performed one of his piano concertos. [n 3][40] Shortly after this performance, he arranged for the publication of the first of his compositions to which he assigned an opus number, the three piano trios, Opus 1. These works were dedicated to his patron Prince Lichnowsky,[39] and were a financial success; Beethoven's profits were nearly sufficient to cover his living expenses for a year.[41] In 1799 Beethoven participated in (and won) a notorious piano 'duel' at the home of Baron Raimund Wetzlar (a former patron of Mozart) against the virtuoso Joseph Wölfl; and in the following year he similarly triumphed against Daniel Steibelt at the salon of Count Moritz von Fries.[42] Beethoven's eighth piano sonata the "Pathetique" (Op. 13), published in 1799 is described by the musicologist Barry Cooper as "surpass[ing] any of his previous compositions, in strength of character, depth of emotion, level of originality, and ingenuity of motivic and tonal manipulation."[43]

Beethoven composed his first six string quartets (Op. 18) between 1798 and 1800 (commissioned by, and dedicated to, Prince Lobkowitz). They were published in 1801. He also completed his Septet (Op. 20) in 1799, which was one of his most popular works during his lifetime. With premieres of his First and Second Symphonies in 1800 and 1803, he became regarded as one of the most important of a generation of young composers following Haydn and Mozart. But his melodies, musical development, use of modulation and texture, and characterisation of emotion all set him apart from his influences, and heightened the impact some of his early works made when they were first published.[44] For the premiere of his First Symphony, he hired the Burgtheater on 2 April 1800, and staged an extensive programme, including works by Haydn and Mozart, as well as his Septet, the Symphony, and one of his piano concertos (the latter three works all then unpublished). The concert, which the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung described as "the most interesting concert in a long time," was not without difficulties; among the criticisms was that "the players did not bother to pay any attention to the soloist."[45] By the end of 1800, Beethoven and his music were already much in demand from patrons and publishers.[46]

Josephine Brunsvik, pencil miniature (unknown artist), before 1804.

In May 1799, he taught piano to the daughters of Hungarian Countess Anna Brunsvik. During this time, he fell in love with the younger daughter Josephine. Amongst his other students, from 1801 to 1805, he tutored Ferdinand Ries, who went on to become a composer and later wrote about their encounters. The young Carl Czerny, who later became a renowned music teacher himself, studied with Beethoven from 1801 to 1803. In late 1801, he met a young countess, Julie ("Giulietta") Guicciardi, through the Brunsvik family; he mentions his love for Julie in a November 1801 letter to a friend, but class difference prevented any consideration of pursuing this. He later dedicated his Sonata No. 14, now commonly known as the Moonlight Sonata, to her.[47]

In the spring of 1801 he completed The Creatures of Prometheus, a ballet. The work received numerous performances in 1801 and 1802, and he rushed to publish a piano arrangement to capitalise on its early popularity.[48] In the spring of 1802 he completed the Second Symphony, intended for performance at a concert that was cancelled. The symphony received its premiere instead at a subscription concert in April 1803 at the Theater an der Wien, where he had been appointed composer in residence. In addition to the Second Symphony, the concert also featured the First Symphony, the Third Piano Concerto, and the oratorio Christ on the Mount of Olives. Reviews were mixed, but the concert was a financial success; he was able to charge three times the cost of a typical concert ticket.[49]

His business dealings with publishers also began to improve in 1802 when his brother Kaspar, who had previously assisted him casually, began to assume a larger role in the management of his affairs. In addition to negotiating higher prices for recently composed works, Kaspar also began selling some of his earlier unpublished compositions, and encouraged him (against Beethoven's preference) to also make arrangements and transcriptions of his more popular works for other instrument combinations. Beethoven acceded to these requests, as he could not prevent publishers from hiring others to do similar arrangements of his works.[50]

1802–1812: The 'heroic' period


Beethoven in 1803, painted by Christian Horneman

Beethoven told the English pianist Charles Neate (in 1815) that he dated his hearing loss from a fit he suffered in 1798 induced by a quarrel with a singer.[51]. During its gradual decline, his hearing was further impeded by a severe form of tinnitus.[52] As early as 1801, he wrote to Wegeler and another friend Karl Amenda, describing his symptoms and the difficulties they caused in both professional and social settings (although it is likely some of his close friends were already aware of the problems).[53] The cause was probably otosclerosis, perhaps accompanied by degeneration of the auditory nerve.[54][n 4]

On the advice of his doctor, he moved to the small Austrian town of Heiligenstadt, just outside Vienna, from April to October 1802 in an attempt to come to terms with his condition. There he wrote the document now known as the “Heiligenstadt Testament”, a letter to his brothers which records his thoughts of suicide due to his growing deafness and records his resolution to continue living for and through his art. The letter was never actually sent and was discovered in the composer’s papers after his death.[57] The letters to Wegeler and Amenda were not so despairing; in them Beethoven commented also on his ongoing professional and financial success at this period, and his determination, as he expressed it to Wegeler, to “seize Fate by the throat; it shall certainly not crush me completely.”[54] In 1806, Beethoven noted on of his musical sketches "Let your deafness no longer be a secret – even in art."[58].

Beethoven's hearing loss did not prevent him from composing music, but it made playing at concerts—a important source of income at this phase of his life—increasingly difficult. (It also contributed substantially to his social withdrawal.)[54] Czerny remarked however that Beethoven could still hear speech and music normally until 1812.[59]

The ‘heroic’ style

Titlepage of ms. of the Eroica Symphony, with Napoleon's name scored through by the composer

Beethoven’s return to Vienna from Heiligenstadt was marked by a change in musical style, and is now often designated as the start of his middle or "heroic" period characterised by many original works composed on a grand scale.[60] According to Carl Czerny, Beethoven said, "I am not satisfied with the work I have done so far. From now on I intend to take a new way."[61] An early major work employing this new style was the Third Symphony in E flat Op. 55, known as the Eroica, written in 1803-4. The idea of creating a symphony based on the career of Napoleon may have been suggested to Beethoven by Count Bernadotte in 1798[62]. Beethoven, sympathetic to the ideal of the heroic revolutionary leader, originally gave the symphony the title "Bonaparte", but disillusioned by Napoleon declaring himself Emperor in 1804, he scratched Napoleon's name from the manuscript's title page, and the symphony was published in 1806 with its present title and the subtitle "to celebrate the memory of a great man."[62] The Eroica was longer and larger in scope than any previous symphony. When it premiered in early 1805 it received a mixed reception. Some listeners objected to its length or misunderstood its structure, while others viewed it as a masterpiece.[63]

E. T. A. Hoffmann, self-portrait, c. 1820

Other middle period works extend in the same dramatic manner the musical language Beethoven had inherited. The Rasumovsky string quartets, and the Waldstein and Appassionata piano sonatas share the heroic spirit of the Third Symphony.[62]. Other works of this period include the Fourth through Eighth Symphonies, the oratorio Christ on the Mount of Olives, the opera Fidelio, and the Violin Concerto.[64] Beethoven was hailed in 1810 by the writer and composer E. T. A. Hoffmann, in an influential review in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, as the greatest of (what he considered) the three "Romantic" composers, (that is, ahead of Haydn and Mozart); in Beethoven's Fifth Symphony his music "sets in motion terror, fear, horror, pain, and awakens the infinite yearning that is the essence of romanticism".[65]

During this time his income came from publishing his works, from performances of them, and from his patrons, for whom he gave private performances and copies of works they commissioned for an exclusive period prior to their publication. Some of his early patrons, including Prince Lobkowitz and Prince Lichnowsky, gave him annual stipends in addition to commissioning works and purchasing published works.[66] Perhaps his most important aristocratic patron was Archduke Rudolf of Austria , the youngest son of Emperor Leopold II, who in 1803 or 1804 began to study piano and composition with him. They became friends, and their meetings continued until 1824.[67] Beethoven was to dedicate 14 compositions to Rudolph, including smw of his major works such as the Archduke Trio Op. 97 (1811) and Missa solemnis Op. 123 (1823).

His position at the Theater an der Wien was terminated when the theatre changed management in early 1804, and he was forced to move temporarily to the suburbs of Vienna with his friend Stephan von Breuning. This slowed work on Leonore, (his original title for his opera), his largest work to date, for a time. It was delayed again by the Austrian censor, and finally premiered, under its present tile of Fidelio in November 1805 to houses that were nearly empty because of the French occupation of the city. In addition to being a financial failure, this version of Fidelio was also a critical failure, and Beethoven began revising it.[68]

Despite this failure, Beethoven continued to attract recognition. In 1807 the musician and publisher Muzio Clementi secured the rights for publishing his works in England, and Haydn's former patron Prince Esterházy commissioned a mass (the Mass in C, Op. 86) for his wife's name-day. But he could not count on such recognition alone. A colossal benefit concert which he organized in December 1808, and was widely advertised, included the premieres of the Fifth and Sixth (Pastoral) symphonies, the Fourth Piano Concerto, extracts from the Mass in C, the scena and aria Ah! perfido Op. 65 and the Choral Fantasy op. 80. There was a large audience, (including Czerny and the young Ignaz Moscheles). But it was under-rehearsed, involved many stops and starts, and during the Fantasia Beethoven was noted shouting at the musicians "badly played, wrong, again!" The financial outcome is unknown.[69]

Beethoven's patron, Archduke Rudolph; portrait by Johann Baptist von Lampi

In the autumn of 1808, after having been rejected for a position at the Royal Theatre, Beethoven had received an offer from Napoleon's brother Jerôme Bonaparte, then king of Westphalia, for a well-paid position as Kapellmeister at the court in Cassel. To persuade him to stay in Vienna, the Archduke Rudolph, Prince Kinsky and Prince Lobkowitz, after receiving representations from the composer's friends, pledged to pay him a pension of 4000 florins a year.[70] In the event, Archduke Rudolph paid his share of the pension on the agreed date.[71] Kinsky, immediately called to military duty, did not contribute and died in November 1812 after falling from his horse.[72].[73] The Austrian currency destabilized and Lobkowitz went bankrupt in 1811, so that to benefit from the agreement Beethoven eventually had recourse to the law, which in 1815 brought him some recompense.[74].

The imminence of war reaching Vienna itself was felt in early 1809. In April Beethoven had completed writing his Piano Concerto No. 5 in E flat major, Op. 73,[72] which the musicologist Alfred Einstein has described as “the apotheosis of the military concept” in Beethoven’s music.[75] Archduke Rudolf left the capital with the Imperial family in early May, prompting Beethoven’s piano sonata ‘’Les Adieux’’, (Sonata No. 26, Op. 81a), actually entitled by Beethoven in German “Das Lebewohl”(“ The Farewell”), of which the final movement, ’’Das Wiedersehen” (‘’The Return’’), is dated in the manuscript with the date of Rudolf’s homecoming of 30 January 1810.[76]. During the French bombardment of Vienna in May Beethoven took refuge in the cellar of the house of his brother Caspar.[77] The subsequent occupation of Vienna and the disruptions to cultural life and to Beethoven’s publishers, together with Beethoven’s poor health at the end of 1809, explain his significantly reduced output during this period, [78] although other notable works of the year include his String Quartet No. 10 in F major, Op. 74 (known as ‘’The Harp”) and the Piano Sonata No. 24 in F sharp major op. 78, dedicated to Josephine's sister Therese Brunsvik. [79]


Goethe in 1808; portrait by Gerhard von Kügelgen

At the end of 1809 Beethoven was commissioned to write incidental music for Goethe's play Egmont. The result (an overture, and nine additional entractes and vocal pieces, Op. 84), which appeared in 1810 fitted well with Beethoven's "heroic" style and he became interested in Goethe, setting three of his poems as songs (Op. 83) and learning about the poet from a mutual acquaintance, Bettina Brentano (who also wrote to Goethe at this time about Beethoven). Other works of this period in a similar vein were the F minor String Quartet Op. 95, to which the composer gave the subtitle Quartetto serioso, and the Op. 97 Piano Trio in B flat major known, from its dedication to his patron Rudolph as the Archduke Trio.[62]

In the spring of 1811 Beethoven became seriously ill, suffering headaches and high fever. His doctor Johann Malfatti recommended him to take a cure at the spa of Teplitz (now Teplice in Czechia) where he wrote two more overtures and sets of incidental music for dramas, this time by August von Kotzebue - King Stephen Op. 117 and The Ruins of Athens Op. 113. Advised again to visit Teplitz in 1812 he met there with Goethe, who wrote of the composer "His talent amazed me; unfortunately he is an utterly untamed personality, who is not altogether wrong in holding the world to be detestable, but surely does not make it any more enjoyable [...] by his attitude." Beethoven wote to his publishers Breitkopf and Härtel that "Goethe delights far too much in the court atmosphere, far more than is becoming in a poet."[62] But following their meeting he began a setting for choir and orchestra of Goethe's Meeresstille und glückliche Fahrt (Calm Sea and Properous Voyage) (Op. 112), completed in 1815. After this was published in 1822 with a dedication to the poet, Beethoven wrote to him "The admiration, the love and esteem which already in my youth I cherished for the one and only immortal Goethe have persisted."[80]

"The Immortal Beloved"

Antonie Brentano (1808) painted by Joseph Karl Stieler

While he was at Teplitz in 1812 he wrote a ten-page love letter to his "Immortal Beloved", which he never sent to its addressee.[81] The identity of the intended recipient was long a subject of debate, although the musicologist Maynard Solomon has effectively proved that the intended recipient must have been Antonie Brentano; other candidates have included Juliette Guicciardi, Therese Malfatti and Josephine Brunsvik.[82][n 5]

All of these had been regarded by Beethoven as possible soulmates during his first decade in Vienna. Guicciardi, although she flirted with Beethoven, never had any serious interest in him and married Wenzel Robert von Gallenberg in November 1803. (Beethoven insisted to his later secretary and biographer, Anton Schindler, that Gucciardi had "sought me out, crying, but I scorned her.")[84] Josephine had since Beethoven's initial infatuation with her married the elderly Count Joseph Deym, who died in 1804. Beethoven began to visit her and commenced a passionate correspondence. Initially he accepted that Josephine could not love him, but he continue to address himself to her even after she had moved to Budapest, finally demonstrating that he had got the message in his last letter to her of 1807: "I thank you for wishing still to appear as if I were not altogether banished from your memory".[85] Malfatti was the niece of Beethoven's doctor, and he had proposed to her in 1810. He was 40, she was 19 – the proposal was rejected.[86] She is now remembered as the recipient of the piano bagatelle Für Elise.[87][n 6]

Antonie (Toni) Brentano (nee von Birkenstock), ten years younger than the composer, was the wife of Franz Brentano, the half-brother of Bettina Brentano, who provided the composer's introduction to the family. It would seem that Antonie and Beethoven had an affair during 1811-1812. Antonie left Vienna with her husband in late 1812 and never met with (or apparently corresponded with) Beethoven again, although in her later years she wrote and spoke fondly of him.[89]


Family problems

Karl van Beethoven, c. 1820: miniature portrait by unknown artist

In early 1813 Beethoven apparently went through a difficult emotional period, and his compositional output dropped. His personal appearance degraded—it had generally been neat—as did his manners in public, notably when dining.[90]

Family issues may have played a part in this. Beethoven had visited his brother Johann at the end of October 1812. He wished to end Johann's cohabitation with Therese Obermayer, a woman who already had an illegitimate child. He was unable to convince Johann to end the relationship and appealed to the local civic and religious authorities, but Johann and Therese married on 8 November.[91]

The illness and eventual death of his brother Kaspar from tuberculosis became an increasing concern. Kaspar had been ill for some time; in 1813 Beethoven lent him 1500 florins, to procure the repayment of which he was ultimately led to complex legal measures.[92] After Kaspar died on 15 November 1815, Beethoven immediately became embroiled in a protracted legal dispute with Kaspar's wife Johanna over custody of their son Karl, then nine years old. Beethoven had successfully applied to Kaspar to have himself named sole guardian of the boy. A late codicil to Kaspar's will gave him and Johanna joint guardianship.[93] While Beethoven was successful at having his nephew removed from her custody in January 1816, and had him removed to a private school[94] in 1818 he was again preoccupied by the legal processes around Karl. While giving evidence to the court for the nobility, the Landrechte, Beethoven was unable to prove that he was of noble birth and as a consequence, on 18 December 1818 the case was transferred to the civil magistracy of Vienna, where he lost sole guardianship.[94][n 7] He only regained custody after intensive legal struggles in 1820.[95] During the years that followed, Beethoven frequently interfered in his nephew's life in what Karl perceived as an overbearing manner.[96]

Post-war Vienna

Beethoven in 1815: portrait by Joseph Willibrord Mähler

Beethoven was finally motivated to begin significant composition again in June 1813, when news arrived of Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Vitoria by a coalition led by the Duke of Wellington. The inventor Mälzel persuaded him to write a work commemorating the event for his mechanical instrument the Panharmonicon. This Beethoven also transcribed for orchestra as Wellington's Victory (Op. 91, also known as the Battle Symphony)[n 8]. It was first performed on 8 December, along with his Seventh Symphony, Op. 92, at a charity concert for victims of the war, a concert whose success led to its repeat on twelfth December. The orchestra included a number of leading and rising musicians who happened to be in Vienna at the time, including Giacomo Meyerbeer and Domenico Dragonetti.[98] The work received repeat performances at concerts staged by Beethoven in January and February 1814.[99]

Beethoven's renewed popularity led to demands for a revival of Fidelio, which, in its third revised version, was also well received at its July opening in Vienna, and was frequently staged there during the following years.[100] Beethoven's publishers, Artaria, commissioned the 20-year old Moscheles to prepare a piano score of the opera, which he inscribed "Finished, with God's help!" - to which Beethoven added "O Man, help thyself."[n 9][101] That summer Beethoven composed a piano sonata for the first time in five years, the (No. 27, Opus 90).[102] He was also one of many composers who produced music in a patriotic vein to entertain the many heads of state and diplomats who came to the Congress of Vienna that began in November 1814, with the cantata Der glorreiche Augenblick (The Glorious Moment) (Op. 136) and similar choral works which, in the words of Maynard Solomon "broadened Beethoven's popularity, [but] did little to enhance his reputation as a serious composer."[103]

In April and May 1814, playing in his ’’Archduke’’) Trio, Beethoven made his last public appearances as a soloist. The composer Louis Spohr noted : “the piano was badly out of tune, which Beethoven minded little, since he did not hear it […] there was scarcely anything left of the virtuosity of the artist […] I was deeply saddened.”[104] From 1814 onwards Beethoven used for conversation ear-trumpets designed by Johann Nepomuk Maelzel, and a number of these are on display at the Beethoven-Haus in Bonn.[105]

His 1815 compositions include an expressive second setting of the poem "An die Hoffnung" (Op. 94) in 1815. Compared to its first setting in 1805 (a gift for Josephine Brunsvik), it was "far more dramatic ... The entire spirit is that of an operatic scena."[106] But his energy seemed to be dropping: apart from these works, he wrote the two cello sonatas Op. 101 nos. 1 and 2, and a few minor pieces, and began but abandoned a sixth piano concerto.[107]


Beethoven in 1818 by August Klöber [de]

Between 1815 and 1819 Beethoven's output dropped again to a level unique in his mature life.[108] He attributed part of this to a lengthy illness (he called it an "inflammatory fever") that he had for more than a year, starting in October 1816.[109] It is also doubtless a consequence of the ongoing legal problems concerning his nephew Karl.[110] His biographer Maynard Solomon further suggests that Beethoven found himself increasingly at odds with current musical trends. Unsympathetic to the sorts of trends in German romanticism that featured the supernatural (as in operas by Louis Spohr, Heinrich Marschner and Carl Maria von Weber, he also "resisted the impending Romantic fragmentation of the [...] cyclic forms of the Classical era into small forms and lyric mood pieces" and turned towards study of Bach, Handel and Palestrina.[111] An old connection was renewed in 1817 when Maelzel sought, and obtained, Beethoven's endorsement for his newly developed metronome.[112] During these years the few major works completed include Beethoven's only song cycle, An die ferne Geliebte Op. 98, (1816), and the gigantic Hammerklavier Sonata (Sonata no 29 in B flat major, Op. 106) (1818).[113] It was also in 1818 that he began musical sketches that eventually form part of his final Ninth Symphony.[114]

By early 1818 Beethoven's health had improved, and his nephew Karl, now aged 11, moved in with him in January, (although within a year Karl's mother had won him back in the courts).[115] By now the composer's hearing had again significantly deteriorated, necessitating Beethoven and his interlocutors writing in notebooks to carry out conversations. These 'conversation books' are a rich written resource for this period. They contain discussions about music, business and personal life; they are also a valuable source for his contacts and for investigations into how he intended his music should be performed, and of his opinions of the art of music.[116][n 10] His household management had also improved somewhat; Nanette Streicher, who had assisted in his care during his illness, continued to provide some support, and he finally found a skilled cook.[122] A testimonial to the esteem in which Beethoven was held in England was the presentation to him in this year by Thomas Broadwood, the proprietor of the company, of a Broadwood piano, for which Beethoven expressed grateful thanks. He was not well enough, however, to carry out a visit to London that year which had been proposed by the Philharmonic Society.[123]


Beethoven in 1819: portrait by Ferdinand Schimon

Despite his ongoing legal struggles over Karl, which involved continuing extensive corresponce and lobbying[124]two events sparked off Beethoven's major composition projects in 1819. The first was the announcement of Archduke Rudolf's promotion to Cardinal-Archbishop and Archbishop of Olomouc (now in Czechia), which triggered the Missa Solemnis Op. 123, intended to be ready for his installation in Olomouc in March 1820. The other was the invitation by the publisher Antonio Diabelli to fifty Viennese composers , including Beethoven, Franz Schubert, Czerny and the 8-year old Franz Liszt, to compose a variation each on a theme which he provided. Beethoven was spurred to outdo the competition and by mid-1819 had already completed 20 variations of what were to become the 33 Diabelli Variations op. 120. Neither of these works were to be completed however for a few years.[125][126] A significant tribute of 1819, however, was Archduke Rudolf's set of forty piano variations on a theme written for him by Beethoven (WoO 200), and dedicated to the master.[127] Beethoven's portrait by Ferdinand Schimon of this year, which was one of the most familiar images of him for the enxt century, was described by Schindler as, despite its artistic weaknesses, "in the rendering of that particular look, the majestic forehead [...] the firmly shut mouth and the chin shaped like a shell, [...] truer to nature than any other picture."[128]

Beethoven's status was confirmed by the series of Concerts sprituels given in Vienna by the choirmaster Franz Xaver Gebauer in the 1819/1820 and 1820/1821 seasons, during which all eight of his symphonies to date, plus the oratorio Christus and the Mass in C, were performed. Beethoven was typically underwhelmed: when in an April 1820 conversation book a friend mentioned Gebauer, Beethoven wrote in reply "Geh! Bauer" ("Bog off, peasant!")[129]

It was in 1819 that Beethoven was first approached by the publisher Moritz Schlesinger who won the suspicious composer round, whilst visiting him at Mödling, by procuring for him a plate of roast veal.[130]. One consequence of this was that Schlesinger was to secure Beethoven's three last piano sonatas and his final quartets; part of the attaction to Beethoven was that Schlesinger had publishing facilities in Germany, France and England which could overcome problems of copyright piracy.[131] The first of the three sonatas, for which Beethoven contracted with Schlesinger in 1820 at 30 ducats per sonata, (further delaying completion of the Mass), was sent to the publisher at the end of that year (the Sonata in E major, Op. 109, dedicated to Maximiliane, Antonie Brentano's daughter).[132].

He was ill again for an extended time in 1821, and completed the Missa in 1823, three years after its original due date. Around 1822 his brother Johann began to assist him in his business affairs, including him lending him money against ownership of some of his compositions.[133]

1824–1827: The final years

Beethoven in 1823 by Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller

Two commissions in 1822 had improved Beethoven's financial prospects. The Philharmonic Society of London offered a commission for a symphony, and Prince Nikolas Golitsin of Saint Petersburg offered to pay Beethoven's price for three string quartets. The first of these commissions spurred him to finish the Ninth Symphony, which was first performed, along with the Missa Solemnis, on 7 May 1824, to great acclaim at the Kärntnertortheater. Beethoven stood by the conductor Michael Umlauf during the premiere beating time (although Umlauf had warned the singers and orchestra to ignore him), and because of his deafness was not even aware of the applause which followed until he was turned to witness it.[134] The Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung gushed, "inexhaustible genius had shown us a new world", and Carl Czerny wrote that his symphony "breathes such a fresh, lively, indeed youthful spirit ... so much power, innovation, and beauty as ever [came] from the head of this original man, although he certainly sometimes led the old wigs to shake their heads." Unlike his more lucrative earlier concerts, this did not make him much money, as the expenses of mounting it were significantly higher.[135] A second concert on 24 May, in which the producer guaranteed him a minimum fee, was poorly attended; nephew Karl noted that "many people [had] already gone into the country". It was Beethoven's last public concert.[136]

Beethoven on his deathbed; sketch by Josef Danhauser

In 1825, his nine symphonies were performed in a cycle for the first time, by the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra under Johann Philipp Christian Schulz. This was repeated in 1826.[137]

Beethoven then turned to writing the string quartets for Golitsin, despite failing health. In April 1825 he was bedridden, and remained ill for about a month. The illness—or more precisely, his recovery from it—is remembered in the slow movement of the Fifteenth Quartet, which he called "Holy song of thanks ('Heiliger Dankgesang') to the divinity, from one made well." He went on to complete the quartets now numbered Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Sixteenth. Of these "Late Quartets", Beethoven's favourite was the Fourteenth, in C minor, which he rated as his most perfect single work.[138] The last work completed by Beethoven was the substitute final movement of the Thirteenth Quartet, which replaced the difficult Große Fuge.

Beethoven's nephew Karl had attempted suicide on 31 July 1826 by shooting himself in the head. He survived and was brought to his mother's house, where he recuperated. He and Beethoven were reconciled, but shortly thereafter, in December 1826, illness struck Beethoven again, with episodes of vomiting and diarrhoea that nearly ended his life. Karl insisted on joining the army and last saw Beethoven in January 1827.

Illness and death

Beethoven's grave at Vienna Zentralfriedhof

Beethoven was bedridden for most of his remaining months, and many friends came to visit. He died on 26 March 1827 at the age of 56 during a thunderstorm. His friend Anselm Hüttenbrenner, who was present at the time, said that there was a peal of thunder at the moment of death. An autopsy revealed significant liver damage, which may have been due to heavy alcohol consumption.[139] It also revealed considerable dilation of the auditory and other related nerves.[140][141]

There is dispute about the cause of his death: alcoholic cirrhosis, syphilis, infectious hepatitis, lead poisoning, sarcoidosis and Whipple's disease have all been proposed.[142] Friends and visitors before and after his death clipped locks of his hair, some of which have been preserved and subjected to additional analysis, as have skull fragments removed during the 1862 exhumation.[143] Some of these analyses have led to controversial assertions that he was accidentally poisoned to death by excessive doses of lead-based treatments administered under instruction from his doctor.[144][145]

Beethoven's funeral procession on 29 March 1827 was attended by an estimated 20000 people. Franz Schubert, who died the following year and was buried next to him, was one of the torchbearers. He was buried in a dedicated grave in the Währing cemetery, north-west of Vienna, after a requiem mass at the church of the Holy Trinity (Dreifaltigkeitskirche). His remains were exhumed for study in 1862, and moved in 1888 to Vienna's Zentralfriedhof.[139]



Beethoven is acknowledged to be one of the giants of classical music. Together with Bach and Johannes Brahms, he is referred to as one of the "three Bs" who epitomize that tradition. He was a pivotal figure in the transition from the eighteenth century musical classicism to nineteenth century romanticism, and his influence on subsequent generations of composers was profound. His music features twice on the Voyager Golden Record, a phonograph record containing a broad sample of the images, common sounds, languages, and music of Earth, sent into outer space with the two Voyager probes.[146]

Beethoven composed in several musical genres and for a variety of instrument combinations. His works for symphony orchestra include nine symphonies (of which the Ninth Symphony includes a chorus), and about a dozen pieces of "occasional" music. He wrote seven concerti for one or more soloists and orchestra, as well as four shorter works that include soloists accompanied by orchestra. His only opera is Fidelio; other vocal works with orchestral accompaniment include two masses and a number of shorter works.

His large body of compositions for piano includes 32 piano sonatas and numerous shorter pieces, including arrangements of some of his other works. Works with piano accompaniment include 10 violin sonatas, 5 cello sonatas, and a sonata for French horn, as well as numerous lieder.

He also wrote a significant quantity of chamber music. In addition to 16 string quartets, he wrote five works for string quintet, seven for piano trio, five for string trio, and more than a dozen works for various combinations of wind instruments.

The three periods

Beethoven's career as a composer is conventionally divided into early, middle, and late periods. The "early" period is typically seen to last until 1802, the "middle" period from 1802 to 1812, and the "late" period thereafter. This distinction was first introduced in 1828, just one year after his death, and while often challenged and refined it remains a starting point to understand the development of Beethoven's work.[147]

Beethoven's early years in Bonn arguably represent a further, preliminary, period. His earliest known composition was from 1782, and a total of 40 pieces by him dating from 1792 or earlier are known today (though mainly from much later sources). Today his best-known works from before 1790 are three piano quartets and three piano sonatas, the quartets being closely modelled on Mozart's sonatas for piano and violin. From 1790 to 1802, his best music can be found in a cantata and a number of concert arias, and in some variations for solo piano, while his instrumental music (including movements of symphonies and a draft violin concerto, as well as various fragmentary chamber works) is conservative and uninspired.[n 11]

The conventional "first period" begins after Beethoven's arrival in Vienna in 1792. In the first few years he seems to have composed less than he did at Bonn, and his Piano Trios, op.1 were not published until 1795. From this point onward, he had mastered the 'Viennese style' (best known today from Haydn and Mozart) and was making the style his own. His works from 1795 to 1800 are larger in scale than was the norm (writing sonatas in four movements, not three, for instance); typically he uses a scherzo rather than a minuet and trio; and his music often includes dramatic, even sometimes over-the-top, uses of extreme dynamics and tempi and chromatic harmony. It was this that led Haydn to believe the third trio of Op.1 was too difficult for an audience to appreciate.[148]

He also explored new directions and gradually expanded the scope and ambition of his work. Some important pieces from the early period are the first and second symphonies, the set of six string quartets Opus 18, the first two piano concertos, and the first dozen or so piano sonatas, including the famous Pathetique sonata, Op. 13.

Middle period

His middle (heroic) period began shortly after the personal crisis brought on by his recognition of encroaching deafness. It includes large-scale works that express heroism and struggle. Middle-period works include six symphonies (Nos. 3–8), the last two piano concertos, the Triple Concerto and violin concerto, five string quartets (Nos. 7–11), several piano sonatas (including the Waldstein and Appassionata sonatas), the Kreutzer violin sonata and his only opera, Fidelio.

The "middle period" is sometimes associated with a "heroic" manner of composing,[149] but the use of the term "heroic" has become increasingly controversial in Beethoven scholarship. The term is more frequently used as an alternative name for the middle period.[150] The appropriateness of the term "heroic" to describe the whole middle period has been questioned as well: while some works, like the Third and Fifth Symphonies, are easy to describe as "heroic", many others, like his Symphony No. 6, Pastoral, are not.[151]

Late period

Beethoven's late period began in the decade 1810-1819. He began a renewed study of older music, including works by Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, that were then being published in the first attempts at complete editions. The overture The Consecration of the House (1822) was an early work to attempt to incorporate these influences. A new style emerged, now called his "late period". He returned to the keyboard to compose his first piano sonatas in almost a decade: the works of the late period include the last five piano sonatas and the Diabelli Variations, the last two sonatas for cello and piano, the late string quartets (see below), and two works for very large forces: the Missa Solemnis and the Ninth Symphony.[citation needed] Works from this period are characterised by their intellectual depth, their formal innovations, and their intense, highly personal expression. The String Quartet, Op. 131 has seven linked movements, and the Ninth Symphony adds choral forces to the orchestra in the last movement.[62] Other compositions from this period include the Missa solemnis, the last five string quartets (including the massive Große Fuge) and the last five piano sonatas.

He was attracted to the ideals of the Age of Enlightenment. In 1804, when Napoleon's imperial ambitions became clear, Beethoven took hold of the title page of his Third Symphony and scratched the name Bonaparte out so violently that he made a hole in the paper. He later changed the work's title to "Sinfonia Eroica, composta per festeggiare il sovvenire d'un grand'uom" ("Heroic Symphony, composed to celebrate the memory of a great man"), and he rededicated it to his patron, Prince Joseph Franz von Lobkowitz, at whose palace it was first performed.[152]


The Beethoven Monument in Bonn was unveiled in August 1845, in honour of the 70-5th anniversary of his birth. It was the first statue of a composer created in Germany, and the music festival that accompanied the unveiling was the impetus for the very hasty construction of the original Beethovenhalle in Bonn (it was designed and built within less than a month, on the urging of Franz Liszt). A statue to Mozart had been unveiled in Salzburg, Austria, in 1842. Vienna did not honour Beethoven with a statue until 1880.[153] His is the only name inscribed on one of the plaques that trim Symphony Hall, Boston; the others were left empty because it was felt that only Beethoven's popularity would endure.[154]

There is a museum, the Beethoven House, the place of his birth, in central Bonn. The same city has hosted a musical festival, the Beethovenfest, since 1845. The festival was initially irregular but has been organised annually since 2007.

The Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies serves as a museum, research center, and host of lectures and performances devoted solely to this life and works.

The third largest crater on Mercury is named in his honour, as is the main-belt asteroid 1815 Beethoven.

See also



  1. ^ The prefix van to the surname "Beethoven" reflects the Flemish origins of the family; the surname suggests that "at some stage they lived at or near a beet-farm".[1]
  2. ^ Most of Beethoven's early and works and those to which he did not give an opus number were listed by Georg Kinsky and Hans Halm as "WoO", works without opus number. Kin sky and Halm also listed 18 doubtful works in their appendix ("WoO Anhang"). In addition, some minor works not listed with opus numbers or in the WoO list have Hess catalogue numbers.[11]
  3. ^ It is uncertain whether this was the First or Second. Documentary evidence is unclear, and both concertos were in a similar state of near-completion (neither was completed or published for several years).[39]
  4. ^ The cause of Beethoven’s deafness has also variously been attributed to , amongst other possibilities, lead poisoning from Beethoven’s preferred wines[55], and Paget's disease of bone [56]
  5. ^ Solomon sets out his case in detail in his biography of Beethoven.[83]
  6. ^ The manuscript (now lost) was found in Therese Malfatti's papers after her death by Beethoven's early biogrspher Ludwig Nohl. It has been suggested that Nohl misread the title, which may have been Für Therese.[88]
  7. ^ Their ruling stated: "It ... appears from the statement of Ludwig van Beethoven ... is unable to prove nobility: hence the matter of guardianship is transferred to the Magistrate[94]
  8. ^ The work is not a true symphony, but a programmatic piece including French and British soldiers' songs, a battle scene with artillery effects and a fugal treatment of God Save the King.[97]
  9. ^ "Fine mit Gottes Hülfe" - "O, Mensch, hilf dir selber."
  10. ^ It was suggested by Beethoven's biographer Alexander Wheelock Thayer that, of 400 conversation books, 264 were destroyed (and others were altered) after his death by his secretary Schindler, who wished only an idealised biography of the composer to survive.[117] The music historian Theodore Albrecht has however demonstrated that Thayer's allegations were over the top. "[It is now] abundantly clear that Schindler never possessed as many as c. 400 conversation books, and that he never destroyed roughly five-eighths of that number."[118] Schindler did however insert a number of fraudulent entries that bolstered his own profile and his prejudices.[119][120] Presently 136 books covering the period 1819-1827 are preserved at the Staatsbibliothek Berlin, with another two at the Beethoven-Haus in Bonn.[121]
  11. ^ GroveOnline, section 12, quote: "... a few rather colourless sonata movements... Less impressive, in these years, is the instrumental music in the sonata style. ... Where Beethoven departed from formula in these works he seems to have straggled helplessly, as in the violin concerto fragment. ... Beethoven at Bonn was a less interesting composer of works in the sonata style than of music in other genres ..."


  1. ^ Cooper 1996, p. 36.
  2. ^ a b c d GroveOnline, section 1.
  3. ^ Cooper 2008, p. 407.
  4. ^ Swafford 2014, pp. 12–17.
  5. ^ a b Thayer 1967a, p. 50.
  6. ^ Thayer 1967a, p. 53.
  7. ^ a b Stanley 2000, p. 7.
  8. ^ Swafford 2014, pp. 22, 32.
  9. ^ Thayer 1967a, pp. 57–8.
  10. ^ Solomon 1998, p. 34.
  11. ^ Cooper 1996, p. 210.
  12. ^ Thayer 1967a, pp. 65–70.
  13. ^ Thayer 1967a, p. 69.
  14. ^ Cooper 1996, p. 50.
  15. ^ a b c GroveOnline, section 2.
  16. ^ Cooper 1996, p. 55.
  17. ^ Solomon 1998, pp. 51–52.
  18. ^ Thayer 1967a, p. 121–122.
  19. ^ Solomon 1998, pp. 36–37.
  20. ^ Thayer 1967a, p. 95.
  21. ^ Solomon 1998, p. 51.
  22. ^ Thayer 1967a, pp. 95–98.
  23. ^ Thayer 1967a, p. 96.
  24. ^ Cooper 2008, pp. 35–41.
  25. ^ Cooper 1996, pp. 93–94.
  26. ^ Swafford 2014, pp. 107–111.
  27. ^ Cooper 2008, p. 35.
  28. ^ Cooper 2008, p. 41.
  29. ^ Thayer 1967a, pp. 34–36.
  30. ^ Cooper 2008, p. 42.
  31. ^ Cooper 2008, p. 43.
  32. ^ GroveOnline, section 3.
  33. ^ Cooper 2008, pp. 47, 54.
  34. ^ Thayer 1921, p. 161.
  35. ^ Ronge 2013.
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  53. ^ Cooper 2008, p. 108.
  54. ^ a b c GroveOnline, section 5.
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  62. ^ a b c d e f GroveOnline.
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  68. ^ Cooper 2008, p. 150.
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  70. ^ Thayer 1967a, p. 457.
  71. ^ Cooper 2008, p. 195.
  72. ^ a b Cooper 1996, p. 48.
  73. ^ Cooper 2008, p. 48.
  74. ^ Solomon 1998, p. 194.
  75. ^ Einstein 1958, p. 47.
  76. ^ Thayer 1967a, p. 464.
  77. ^ Thayer 1967a, p. 465.
  78. ^ Thayer 1967a, p. 467-473.
  79. ^ Thayer 1967a, p. 475.
  80. ^ Cooper 1996, p. 47.
  81. ^ Brandenburg 1996, p. 582.
  82. ^ Cooper 1996, p. 107.
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  84. ^ Solomon 1998, pp. 196-197.
  85. ^ Solomon 1998, pp. 197-199.
  86. ^ Solomon 1998, p. 196.
  87. ^ Cooper 1998, p. 20.
  88. ^ Thayer 1967a, p. 502.
  89. ^ Solomon 1998, pp. 231-239.
  90. ^ Solomon 1998, pp. 284-285.
  91. ^ Solomon 1998, p. 282.
  92. ^ Solomon 1998, pp. 301-302.
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  95. ^ Solomon 1998, p. 316-321.
  96. ^ Solomon 1998, pp. 3364-365.
  97. ^ Cooper 1998, p. 220.
  98. ^ Thayer 1967a, pp. 559-565.
  99. ^ Thayer 1967a, pp. 575-576.
  100. ^ Solomon 1998, pp. 288, 348.
  101. ^ Conway 2012, p. 129.
  102. ^ Solomon 1998, p. 292.
  103. ^ Solomon 1998, p. 287.
  104. ^ Thayer 1967a, p. 577-578.
  105. ^ Ealy 1994, pp. 266-267.
  106. ^ Lockwood 2005, p. 278.
  107. ^ Cooper 1996, pp. 24-25.
  108. ^ Solomon 1998, p. 296.
  109. ^ Cooper 2008, p. 254.
  110. ^ Solomon 1998, p. 297.
  111. ^ Solomon 1998, p. 295.
  112. ^ Thayer 1967b, pp. 684-686.
  113. ^ Thayer 1967b, pp. 659, 717.
  114. ^ Solomon 1998, p. 322.
  115. ^ Cooper 1996, p. 41.
  116. ^ Cooper 1996, pp. 164-167.
  117. ^ Clive 2001, p. 239.
  118. ^ Albrecht 2009, p. 181.
  119. ^ Cooper 1996, p. 52.
  120. ^ Nettl 1994, p. 103.
  121. ^ Hammelmann 1965, p. 187.
  122. ^ Cooper 2008, p. 260.
  123. ^ Thayer 1967b, pp. 696-698.
  124. ^ Thayer 1967b, p. 790.
  125. ^ GroveOnline, section 8.
  126. ^ Cooper 1996, p. 45.
  127. ^ Thayer 1967b, pp. 741, 745.
  128. ^ Thayer 1967b, p. 742.
  129. ^ Thayer 1967b, pp. 770-771, (editor's translation).
  130. ^ Thayer 1967b, pp. 734-735.
  131. ^ Conway 2012, pp. 185-187.
  132. ^ Cooper 1996, pp. 27-28.
  133. ^ Solomon 1998, p. 360.
  134. ^ Solomon 1988, p. 351.
  135. ^ Cooper 2008, p. 317.
  136. ^ Cooper 2008, p. 318.
  137. ^ Tom Service. "Riccardo Chailly on Beethoven: 'It's a long way from the First to the Ninth'", The Guardian, 26 October 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2014
  138. ^ Morris 2010, p. 213.
  139. ^ a b Cooper 2008, pp. 318, 349.
  140. ^ SaccentiSmildeSaris 2011.
  141. ^ SaccentiSmildeSaris 2012.
  142. ^ Mai 2006.
  143. ^ Meredith 2005, pp. 2–3.
  144. ^ Eisinger 2008.
  145. ^ Lorenz 2007.
  146. ^ "Golden Record Music List". NASA. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  147. ^ GroveOnline, section 11.
  148. ^ GroveOnline, section 13.
  149. ^ Solomon, Maynard (1990). Beethoven essays. Harvard University Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-674-06379-2. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
  150. ^ Steinberg, Michael P. (2006). Listening to reason: culture, subjectivity, and nineteenth-century music. Princeton University Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-0-691-12616-6. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
  151. ^ Burnham, Scott G.; Steinberg, Michael P. (2000). Beethoven and his world. Princeton University Press. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0-691-07073-5. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
  152. ^ "Friedrich Oelenhainz (1745–1804), Franz Joseph Maximilian Fürst von Lobkowitz (1772–1816)]". Beethoven-Haus Bonn. April 2002. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
  153. ^ Comini 2008, p. 316.
  154. ^ "The History of Symphony Hall".


External links